− パウロ伝(11) −
The Life of St. Paul
James Stalker

(コリントI 12:31、14:1)


20. But, although he thus escaped the chances which seemed likely to drift him into a secular calling, yet, before going away to prepare for the sacred profession, he was to get some insight into business life; for it was a rule among the Jews that every boy, whatever might be the profession he was to follow, should learn a trade, as a resource in time of need.

This was a rule with wisdom in it; for it gave employment to the young at an age when too much leisure is dangerous, and acquainted the wealthy and the learned in some degree with the feelings of those who have to earn their bread with the sweat of their brow. これは次のようなことが含まれている賢明な規則であった。なぜなら暇がありすぎては非常に危険な年代の若者に働く機会を与え、富に馴れるとともに、そうすることによって額に汗して自分のパン代を稼ぐことに対するなにがしかの感覚を学び得たからであった。
The trade which he was put to was the commonest one in Tarsus--the making of tents from the goat's-hair cloth for which the district was celebrated. 彼が身につけた仕事は、タルソでもっともありふれた・・その地方で珍重されていた山羊の毛を材料とする天幕を作ることであった。
Little did he or his father think, when he began to handle the disagreeable material, of what importance this handicraft was to be to him in subsequent years: it became the means of his support during his missionary journeys, and, at a time when it was essential that the propagators of Christianity should be above the suspicion of selfish motives, enabled him to maintain himself in a position of noble independence. この手触りの悪い物を扱い始めたとき、後にこの手工芸が彼にとってどんなに重要になるか、彼とか彼の父も少しも考えなかったであろう。 それはやがて彼の宣教旅行を支える手段となった。そして彼が利己的な動機で宣教しているという嫌疑に、高貴にそれから離れていることを示す手段となった。

21. Education.--It is a question natural to ask, whether, before leaving home to go and get his training as a rabbi, Paul attended the University of Tarsus.

21.教育 ・・・彼がラビとなるための訓練を受けるために家を離れる前に、タルソの大学に通ったのかどうかは、自然な疑問である。
Did he drink at the wells of wisdom which flow from Mount Helicon before going to sit by those which spring from Mount Zion? 彼は賢者の泉の水をシオンの山の泉から飲むために座す前に、ヘリコン山の流れから飲んだのだろうか?
From the fact that he makes two or three quotations from the Greek poets it has been inferred that he was acquainted with the whole literature of Greece. 彼がギリシャの詩から2、3のフレーズを引用している事実から、ギリシャ文学全体を知っていたと思われている。
But, on the other hand, it has been pointed out that his quotations are brief and commonplace, such as any man who spoke Greek would pick up and use occasionally; and the style and vocabulary of his Epistles are not those of the models of Greek literature, but of the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures, which was then in universal use among the Jews of the Dispersion. しかし、一方で、彼が引用したのはギリシャ語を話す人々なら誰でも知っていて、機会があれば引用することばの断片にすぎないということも指摘されている。そして彼の書簡の文体や語彙は、ギリシャ文学の類型には従っておらず、散っていったユダヤ人の間に行き渡っていた七十人訳聖書、ヘブル語聖書のギリシャ語翻訳版に準拠していた。
Probably his father would have considered it sinful to allow his son to attend a heathen university. 恐らく彼の父は、自分の息子が異教徒の大学に通うことを許すのは、罪ふかいことだと考えたのであろう。
Yet it is not likely that he grew up in a great seat of learning without receiving any influence from the academic tone of the place. 偉大な学びの場に育ちながら、その地の大学のいかなる風潮も受けることのなく彼が育ったということはありえそうもない。
His speech at Athens shows that he was able, when he chose, to wield a style much more stately than that of his writings, and so keen a mind was not likely to remain in total ignorance of the great monuments of the language which he spoke. 彼がアテネでした演説は、彼の著作にも勝って巧みなスタイルを選ぶこともできたことを示している。そして彼がそのとき語った言葉の跡から、彼がギリシャ文学に無知であるとは到底思われないであろう。

22. There were other impressions, too, which the learned Tarsus probably made upon him: its university was famous for those petty disputes and rivalries which sometimes ruffle the calm of academical retreats; and it is possible that the murmur of these, with which the air was often filled, may have given the first impulse to that scorn for the tricks of the rhetorician and the windy disputations of the sophist which form so marked a feature in some of his writings.

22.恐らくタルソで学ぶことによって彼の内に作られたと思われる印象が他にもある。 タルソの大学はつまらない論争と抗争で有名であって、それはしばしば大学の静けさを乱し波乱を呼んだ。修辞学者の欺きや、後の彼の著作にも記されている詭弁家たちのつかみ所のない論争対する軽蔑が、彼の最初の印象となったことはあり得ることである。
The glances of young eyes are clear and sure, and even as a boy he may have perceived how small may be the souls of men and how mean their lives, when their mouths are filled with the finest phraseology. 若者の一瞥は明瞭で確かであった。上品ぶった言い回しが彼らの口に満ちているとき、彼らの人生が何を意味し、彼らの魂がいかにちっぽけなものであるか、少年であったときにも彼はそれを理解したに違いない。